In a project supported by Buro Happold, DENO has been used to analyse energy supply planning for the proposed 18-year development plans at the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park in London, which are subject to increasingly stringent carbon-reduction targets. Possible solutions for achieving zero-carbon emissions targets were investigated, and demonstrated that the targets could only be met in the future construction phases if biogas could be used.
DENO has been developed using Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP). Within DENO a group of energy generators and consumers are idealised as a set of nodes which represent the points where electricity, heating and cooling are generated or consumed. These nodes are linked by arcs which represent the distribution network. To optimise energy costs, DENO evaluates the consumer energy demands at each node at hourly intervals against the set of energy generation technologies capable of meeting the demand. DENO selects the optimal combination of technologies and their appropriate capacities, then determines the schedule for each unit that allows the energy system to meet the hourly demands.
For sites with multiple consumer locations, DENO optimises the location of the generation units and the structure of the distribution network in order to minimise energy losses.
DENO was also successfully used to identify optimal energy systems to supply buildings at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and is being developed in collaboration with the Indian Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad, to optimise energy supply systems for campus-scale developments in India.